Wednesday, April 4, 2012

For Mon., Apr 9: Posting three additional summaries

Before class on Monday, please post three additional summaries of your scholarly sources for our current project. (I encourage you to write more than three, but you can just post three for class. As you continue to draft, though, I think you'll find that the process of summarizing each of your sources will help you as shift to synthesizing them for your literature review essay.) Please follow the previous directions on what to include in your summaries. You may find that you need to include just one summary per comment.


  1. Dhanani, L. (2011). How religiosity affects perceptions of the homeless. University of Central Florida Undergraduate Research Journal, 4(2), 52-61.
    “How Religiosity Affects Perceptions of the Homeless” seeks to explore the relationship between religious faith and perceptions of the homeless. The data presented in this study was garnered through a telephone survey of 483 Florida residents. In the introduction, the text notes that teachings regarding the treatment of the poor are abundant in Christian, Judaic, and Islamic texts. Examples from seminal religious texts are given. From these examples, it is obvious that the poor are viewed favorably within religious texts. As a result of these numerous teachings, many religious organizations have been created to aid the less fortunate. “73% of all pantries, 65% of kitchens, and 43% of shelters that serve emergency feeding purposes are faith-based,” subsequently serving to illustrate this point. It is noted that for the purposes of the study, Florida’s composition of religious affiliation is largely similar to that of the nation as a whole. One of the statements made during the telephone interviews was that homeless people have good job skills; the response was that “over half (62%) of the affiliated respondents agreed with this statement, only 39% of the non-affiliated respondents also agreed.” It was also discovered that religiously affiliated respondents were more likely to be aware of the Coalition for the Homeless of Central Florida, primarily because of this organization’s work with churches. On the issue of panhandling, interviewers found that “over half (57%) of religiously affiliated respondents agreed that panhandling is a problem in Central Florida, compared to just over one-third (34%) of unaffiliated respondents.” Many of the affiliated respondents stated that they give money to the homeless precisely because of this religiosity and because of their belief that it is right. This study concludes with the idea that because of religious teachings, it would appear that religious individuals would be the bearers of more positive attitudes toward the homeless than would the non-religious. However, the finding was ultimately unearthed that “there were no significant differences between affiliated and non-affiliated respondents on most of the measures of homeless perception. Religious affiliation was associated with negative measures of homeless perception, such as viewing homeless individuals as dangerous and considering panhandling to be a problem.” Because of this, it can be safely concluded that even if an idea is taught in a religious context, this idea will not always become an action. Through this study, the sheer unpredictability of the effect of religious teachings on people’s perceptions of the homeless is ultimately revealed. Because my essay will attempt to discover how religion plays a role in the lives of the homeless, it is useful to examine its indirect effects as well, which this study allows me to do.

  2. Morgan, M., Goddard , H., & Givens , S. (1997). Factors that influence willingness to help the homeless. Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless, 6(1), 45-56.

    “Factors that Influence Willingness to Help the Homeless” examines relationships between general willingness to help the homeless and empathy, household income, political orientation, gender, and race. Most importantly for my essay, this study also examines religion in this context. It is stated in the introduction to this study that a vast variety of people are currently homeless, and helping to resolve this problem will require a change in social attitudes. Because of the relatively limited prevalence of research regarding people’s attitudes toward the homeless, this study seeks to explore this topic further. It is mentioned that studies conducted prior to this one have, in fact, found connections between religiosity and prosocial behavior. In this study, 204 undergraduate students from an unnamed four-year university located in the southeastern United States voluntarily participated. It is mentioned in the study that being a member of a college population often corresponds with a greater desire to help the less fortunate. In order to accurately measure religiosity among the participants, nine questions were administered that were designed to examine participation in “religious practices such as prayer, as well as their beliefs about right and wrong, sin, faith, and heaven and hell.” The responses were subsequently scored, and the interviewees received a score ranging from nine to forty-five, with lower scores indicating higher religiosity. The mean score in this study was 17.93. It was noted that the variables of empathy and religiosity were strongly correlated, while no other significant correlations among the other variables emerged. Higher empathy scores, in turn, were associated with a higher willingness to help the homeless, naturally leading one to an assumption that both empathy and religiosity converge to create this inclination. The average religiosity score of the non-white participants was markedly higher than that of the white participants. The ultimate conclusion of this study clearly regarded the idea that out of all of the variables, empathy, income, political orientation, gender, race, and religion, empathy was most notably associated with intention of helping the homeless. However, religion closely followed empathy in terms of intentions, demonstrating that at least among this group of individuals, religion and helping the less fortunate go hand-in-hand. This study will be fruitful to include in my essay because it clearly illustrates the role indirectly played by religion in the lives of the homeless.

  3. Snow , D., & Anderson, L. (1987). Identity work among the homeless: The verbal construction and avowal of personal identities. American Journal of Sociology , 92(6), 1336-1371.

    “Identity Work Among the Homeless: The Verbal Construction and Avowal of Personal Identities” details a study that attempts to gain an understanding of how “individuals at the bottom of status” create identities that grant them self-esteem. Despite extensive discussion in society of the perceived personal problems of the homeless, and the problems that their existence apparently poses for society, the inner life of the homeless is rarely approached. It is noted that “in The Birth and Death of Meaning, Ernest Becker (1962), drawing on the ideas of Alfred Adler…argues that our most basic drive is for a sense of self-worth or personal significance.” However, not all people possess equal access to the achievement of this; homeless people would be included in this category. This study is constructed with data from an ethnographic field study of a sample of homeless people from Austin, Texas. The researchers “hung out” with the homeless over the course of a year in an attempt to “acquire an appreciation for the nature of life on the streets.” They would either eavesdrop or engage two or more individuals in a casual conversation. Twenty-four varying locations were visited, including the Salvation Army, city hospitals, soup kitchens, and plasma centers. It is interesting, in the context of the topic of my essay, that a few of the observed homeless had the opinion that “the Salvation Army is supposed to be a Christian organization, but it doesn't have a Christian spirit. It looks down on people. . . . The Salvation Army is a national business that is more worried about making money than helping people.” Therefore, the popular opinion of at least one faith-based organization among the people who utilize its services the most is revealed. In addition, the idea of ideological embracement, which is a kind of embracement that can “provide an individual with a special niche in which to lodge the self and thereby distinguish himself from others [by entailing] the acceptance of a set of beliefs or ideas and the avowal of a cognitively congruent personal identity.” It is commonly manifested in the form of adherence to religious beliefs. Conversations with a middle-aged homeless man named Banjo, who identifies as a Christian and makes repeated references to his beliefs, illustrate this category. The researchers note that it is no surprise that the homeless tend to gravitate toward the occult and supernatural as well, as they possess far fewer resources to propel them in the direction of a positive personal identity. Therefore, my findings from perusing this study serve to underscore the theory that religious beliefs of some kind provide homeless people with the grounding they seek in the midst of a tumultuous existence.

  4. Summary of: Homeless Women, Parents, and Children: A Triangulation Approach Analyzing Factors Influencing Homelessness and Child Separation
    BY: Hilary M. Dotson

    This article begins by explaining that homelessness is experienced differently by men and women, including different reasoning behind becoming homeless. For women, this difference often exists in the implications of being a single mother. Being a homeless single mother has three different manifestations according to this study. Firstly, a mother could be placed in a shelter with all of her children. Additionally, a mother could be separated from some but not all of her children. Lastly, a mother could be separated from all of her children. It is then stated that 25% of homeless women interviewed in New York City reported being separated from a minor child. As Dotson begins to focus on the research conducted, she outlines two hypotheses for her experiment. “Hypothesis 1: Experiencing a mental illness, drug problem, physical disability, domestic violence, or currently being separated from any children will decrease the likelihood of entering the shelter with any children.
    Hypothesis 2: Experiencing a mental illness, drug problem, physical disability, or domestic violence will increase the likelihood of being separated from one or more children.” In addition the experiment would focus on if women who are separated from their children will suffer from social problems more frequently than women who are not separated from their children. The method and process behind her research included using data from physical intake files and a computerized database from a homeless shelter in the southeastern United States as well as focus groups conducted to examine the special circumstances of women separated from their children. The dependant variables in the study included entering the shelter with children and being separated from any children. Independent variables included Mental illness, drug abuse, physical disability, and domestic violence. The control variables in this experiment consisted of race, ethnicity, age and income at shelter entry. The study found several conclusions. Firstly, that one third of women in this particular shelter were separated from at least one child. Also, the study found that the specialized behaviors outlined in the hypothesis were not reliable predictors of future mother-child separation. Finally, the study concluded that it cannot predict likelihood of being separated from one or more children and that age is the only significant variable when predicting being separated from one or more children.

  5. Summary of “Don’t Leave Me Hanging”: Homeless Mothers’ Perceptions of Service Providers”
    By: Brittany Sznajder-Murray and Natasha Slesnick

    This study focused on the interaction between single homeless mothers and their interaction with service providers. The study consisted of a total of 28 mothers who, struggling with drug addiction, were currently residing at a homeless shelter in a Midwestern city. These women participated in three separate focus groups aimed at interpreting their experiences with the services provided for them as both drug abusers and homeless mothers. In addition, the study concludes with a compilation of recommendations from these focus groups to help improve the current system. The procedure in the study included recruiting women to participate in the focus groups through a local homeless family shelter. After ensuring eligibility criteria and obtaining informed consent, these women completed a 3-hour assessment with a research assistant. Questions asked in the focus group included that following: “What are your prior (negative and positive) experiences with the social system? How have you felt the social system has helped you or hurt you? What are the issues/barriers that you face when you are accessing services? What qualities would you like to see in an advocate? What would make you want to meet with your advocate? If someone were to run a program where people were to help you meet some of your needs, what would that look like? What are the personal issues that you might need help with? Are there any things that you would not want to talk about with your advocate/therapist?” The findings of this study were organized into two categories: past experiences, and how mothers hope to be treated. The conclusions reflected that generally these women held negative perceptions of service providers. This broader statement was supported by comments about women feeling judged for their past mistakes, a lack of support in the system, and even feeling discouraged by the service providers. In representing how these women would like to be treated in the future, several common strands surfaced. These included: 1) desire to be understood, 2) desire for positive support, and 3) need to trust service providers. When reflecting on the limitations and strengths of this study, Sznajder-Murray Slesnick state that the research was limited by the small sample of women that they worked with. Due to the fact that all of the women were from the dame shelter, these results are not able to represent different types of service systems.

  6. Summary of Resettlement and reintegration: Single mothers’ reflections after Homelessness
    By: Victoria Tischler

    This article focuses on in the experiences of homeless single mothers after they have been placed in public housing accommodations. Tischler explains that while there has been a focus on single mothers while they are living in shelters, little attention has been given to the experiences of families following their exit from homelessness. The article begins by explaining potential original causes of homelessness, including structural factors such as the lake of low-income housing, and individual factors such as mental health status. The purpose of the study preformed was multifaceted. Mainly, to “investigate the experience of resettlement in a group of single mothers with dependent children who had experienced homelessness.” The study also more specifically explored “satisfaction with new accommodation, their feelings about their home compared to their feelings whilst homeless, what they had learned from their experiences of homelessness, and their hopes for the future.” The method of the experiment included selecting 21 participants drawn from a larger study on family homelessness. All participants were interviewed by Tischler in their homes following resettlement. In addition, a questionnaire gathered reflections on the period of homelessness and feelings about new living arrangements. All participants shared the characteristics of being single mothers with a median age of 35 years, having one or more dependent children, and living in a permanent home after a period of homelessness. This results of this study found that 38.1% of women stated that they were satisfied with their new housing situation, 28.6% of women were not satisfied, and 33.3% of women expressed uncertainty. More specifically, the women expressed sentiments of being forced into their current property, not feeling safe in the area they are now living, and being surrounded by a culture of drugs and riots. However, the majority of women also expressed notions of feeling better than when previously homeless, appreciating have personal space where they are not watched, and no longer feeling a endless sense of waiting for something in the future. The participants in this study also spoke strongly of improvements that need to take place in current shelters and other homeless accommodations. These improvements included better treatment by staff, more facilities for children, and resources to help women regain their self-respect.

  7. “Woman Battering: A major Cause of Homelessness” by Joan Zorza

    This article discusses many of the effects of domestic abuse on both women and children and possible ways to prevent and deal with domestic violence. In her opening argument, Zorza includes several different statistics and studies to back up her arguments. She begins her argument by stating that not enough attention is paid to domestic violence in most poverty studies and articles. She compares different studies and highlights the similarities between them, including women being forced to return to abusers because of inability to find separate housing or judge’s refusal to evict abusers because of a fear of violating their rights. She also discusses the extent of abuse in relationships, stating that it is “the single largest cause of injury to women in the United States.” Because abuse is so common in domestic relationships, it is very important the society develops laws and procedure to deal with and put and end to domestic violence. Zorza mentions the possibility of an act in congress as well as several different strategies to distance women from their abusers, including changing locks on apartments, changing welfare and housing laws, and challenging discrimination laws, as well as the problems associated with these tactics.
    A key example from this article, that would be significant to my paper, is Zorza’s discussion of the treatment of domestic abuse victims by the courts. She talks about how judges believe that it is unfair to evict an abusive husband and subject him to hardship. Later, she talks about the problems that women have when reporting abuse to the police, including instance in which both the abuser and the abused have been arrested and the children have been sent to foster care.

  8. “Domestic Violence and Housing Problems” by Charlene K. Baker, Sarah L. Cook, and Fran H. Norris

    This article is unique in that it addresses the problem of domestic violence in relation to homelessness in a more complicated fashion by examining the process of trying to receive assistance. Abused women must try several different resources in order to get back on their feet after standing up to an abusive significant other. This article discusses a how women were treated at various agencies, including welfare, shelters, and the criminal justice system. One of the main discoveries of the articles is that woman who are allowed to stay in their original home, meaning that the abusive husband or boyfriend is kicked out, the woman has a much higher chance of avoiding homelessness. They also found that some support systems are rarely helpful, although all women have different experience. The most unresponsive or unhelpful of the networks was typically church communities. The criminal justice system was the most widely used and helpful, and women’s shelters were the least often used. However, pursuing help did not always result in help. This article contains several statistics regarding women’s responses to the help they received or did not receive, as well as their advice on how to improve the systems in which they pursued help.
    One of the major discoveries of this article that I have also read about in other sources was that “women experience a catch 22. Those who do not work to appease their partner may jeopardize their welfare benefits. Conversely, women who work may experience a ‘backlash.’” It also talks about laws that could help but “temporarily waiving tie limits and work requirements for women who self-disclose domestic violence.” Another important similarity with other articles is the criminal justice system’s “poor treatment of women and an inability to protect women” because judges do not protect women by evicting their abuser or granting restraining orders.

  9. “Domestic Violence, Criminal Justice Responses and Homelessness: Finding the Connection and Addressing the Problem” by Jana L. Bufkin and Judith Bray

    This article focuses on the relationship between homelessness and domestic violence as a direct result of the criminal justice system. It talks about homeless women in regard to numbers and percentages that have experienced domestic violence. It then goes on to discuss the problems associated with police treatment of victims of domestic abuse. Police often have preconceived ideas about domestic abuse that effect their treatment of both victims and abusers. These ideas often cause the officers to not arrest the abuser. This is a major problem and has created a need for pro-arrest domestic violence legislation. Another major issue with domestic violence arrest is a victim’s fear of backlash from an arrest or any police action. The biggest issue with police involvement in domestic violence cases is in “mutual combat arrests,” meaning both the abuser and the victim are arrested, often leaving the children to foster care. In contrast to the police unlikeliness to reply adequately to domestic abuse complaints, courts are much more likely to be of assistance to victims. Judges grant protection by awarding restraining orders. However, women must still rely on police to enforce the restraining orders.
    The most important area of this article are the authors recommendations for both further research as well as possible changes to the legal system. Some research recommendations include the instances of stalking, harassment, and physical abuse after the onset of homelessness or the changes in police action after biases have been overcome. Possible changes in policy include an establishment of protocol for dealing with abuse complaints or prioritizing domestic abuse complaints. The authors recommend that the officers take several different measure to protect a victim at the scene of the crime including, “remaining at the crime scene until the threat of immediate violence as passed, transporting the victim and her children to safety, assisting in obtaining medical treatment, informing the victim of her rights and the availability of protective orders, etc.”

  10. Implications of homelessness for parenting young children: A preliminary review from a developmental attachment perspective:

    This article focuses on the ability for homeless parents (specifically single mothers) to raise children in the environment that they have to live in. Most of the research used in the article specifically discusses young children (age 5 and younger) because children at this age are most likely to be exposed to prolonged exposure to adverse conditions. This is the time when children are most affected by their surrounding environment, and it is most likely that being homeless will affect them permanently.
    The article explains a typical profile of a homeless mother - uneducated, lacking skills, often sick or mentally ill. The affect this has on children can be devastating. Research has shown that having parents who are unable to provide good parenting increases the likelihood that the child will become homeless themselves.
    Homeless children are less likely to receive a satisfactory education because they are constantly moving from place to place. It is difficult to keep them in the same school for a long period of time. It is also difficult for them to obtain the necessary school supplies. This often causes the child to fall back in school.
    In comparison with poor, but housed children, homeless children are also more likely to develop problems such as poor health, poor mental development, behavioral problems, and mental illnesses such as depression.
    Problems with parenting children while homeless begins with pregnancy. Homeless pregnant women are often malnourished, and have other stress in their lives that cause them to neglect caring for their baby. Studies have shown that many pregnant homeless women have been victims of abuse in their past, causing psychological problems that keep them from preparing for parenthood.
    Infants living on the streets have difficulty developing their senses to perceive the world. Not having the familiarity of a home, and the overwhelming sensations of the streets cause the infant to develop slowly. In addition, the mother is unable to give the infant a lot of attention because she is preoccupied with basic concerns like finding food. This can cause the infant's emotional development to be stunted.
    When the child is a toddler, the primary concern in parenting is to regulate the child, letting them explore the world while still keeping them contained and not letting them act on impulse all of the time. Again, when the mothers have little time to care for their children, the children are unable to develop in the way a non-homeless child would. This can cause many psychological and emotional problems for the child in the future, which in turn could lead to them following in the footsteps of their parents.

  11. Promoting children’s mental health in family supportive housing: A community–university partnership for formerly homeless children and families.

    This article explains how previously homeless children have likely experienced exposure to violence and emotional abuse which places them at risk for psychological problems in the future that could in turn lead to homelessness. The article focuses on the need for prevention services in supportive housing. It describes one community- university partnership that aims to advance practice and research that would prevent this from happening to homeless children.
    The article cites a study that compared very poor housed children (with a subgroup of previously homeless children) to homeless children. It found that homeless children were more likely to have impaired functioning in school as well as health problems and "more recent adverse life events" than the housed children. But the subgroup of previously homeless children has stats similar to the homeless children, showing that the effects of homelessness are long lasting.
    The article then discusses family-supportive housing which was created in 1987. This is where homeless families with disabilities can live. A study consisting of 454 children living in this housing found that
    15% of birth to 4-year-olds, 47% of 5- to 11-year-olds, and 67% of 12- to 18-year-olds had a behavioral or learning problem. Many were also below their grade level in reading and math, and many had mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. Despite all of these problems supportive housing units do provide support services. 95% of the children in the study were able to have health insurance and regular health check ups.
    The article argues that preventative support services are crucial to "preventing and ameliorating the effects of exposure to homelessness-related traumatic events." It states that preventative care has targeted the problems that lead to homelessness in the future.
    The Healthy Families Network is used as an example of such preventative care. Researches at the University of Minnesota are collaborating with 17 non-profits with supportive housing programs. The goal is to advance service and science by promoting the mental health of children in supportive housing units.

  12. Are we moving again this week? Children's experiences of homelessness in Victora, Australia

    This article is about a research project done in Australia about homeless children. The project interviewed 20 homeless children, age 6-12 who were living in some sort of supported accommodation, but had moved residences at least three times. In addition the project interviewed 12 parents/guardians of the children.
    It was found that most children did not understand the concept of a house being a home. Some said that they thought of home as where ever their family was living, and some said that their home is a place where they're not too cramped together and they can feel safe. Some stated that they didn't feel like their new house was a home because people down the street scared them and the house was falling apart.
    The article then described mental health problems that were evident in the children. Some parents reported that their children were often depressed when they had to leave school in order to move to a different residence. Some kids bragged about being violent toward others. The parents of the same kid reported that he had problems with stealing at school. Some kids had problems like bedwetting that had been a result of not having a permanent place to stay. In addition many kids reported having physical health problems, such as anemia and hearing deficits, and ADD.
    Many children were also exposed to violence, such as one boy who had seen his step-dad put a knife to his mother's throat, and a girl who had been threatened with gun-shots from her mother's boyfriend.
    The article also discusses the affects of homelessness on family relationships. Many kids reported that they didn't have very good relationships with their parents because they were moving so much. In addition, many children had lost relationships with siblings who had stayed behind with another parent.

  13. Greer, S., Burnam, A., Koegel, P., & Hollenberg, J. (2009, September). Quality of Life of Homelss Persons With Mental Illness: Results from the Course-of-Homelessness Study. Psychiatric Services, 51(9), 1135-1141. Retrieved April 8, 2012, from Penrose Library Online.

    This study was conducted with the purpose of comparing the quality of life of homeless persons with a mental illness to those without a mental illness to maximize the “quality of life” for homeless individuals afflicted with mental illness, as well as to understand how they fair in institutional settings. To conduct the survey, subjects were found throughout Los Angeles and subjected to an interview, and then were divided into sampling groups based on separate factors and followed throughout a fifteen month period after the interview. During that time, they were monitored by the study and were given regular follow-up interviews to mark any important situational or personal changes. Each persons “quality of life” was measured using both objective and subjective assessments.
    For objective assessments, the surveyors tracked benefits, victimization, sheltering and paychecks of each individual. The subjective assessments were completed through an in-depth personal satisfaction interview, which examined each person’s satisfaction with eight different domains of their life.
    The results found several significant pieces of information. First, it found a distinct correlation between amount of time and number of cycles of each person experiencing homelessness and mental illness, suggesting a “cyclical cycle of homelessness”. The study also found that homeless persons received a higher average monthly income and were more likely to receive certain governmental benefits. However, they reported more sustenance difficulty, poorer physical functioning, and more instances of victimization. The study suggests the most effective and beneficial ways to help homeless persons with mental disease would be to ensure stability of housing and direct provision of sustenance services.

  14. Folsom, D., Hawthorne, W., Lindamer, L., & Gilmer, T. (2005, February). Prevalence and Risk Factors for Homelessness and Utilization of Mental Health Services Among 10,340 Patients With Serious Mental Illness in a Large Public Mental Health System. Psychiatric Services, 162(2), 269-376. Retrieved April 8, 2012, from EBSCO.

    The study examined the propensity of homelessness to see if it is most common in young, male subjects whom have been diagnosed with schizophrenias or “lower-levels of functioning” and also to see if homeless mental patients would make more use of emergency-type treatments and less outpatient medical treatment compared to patients who are not homeless. Two groups, categorized as both homeless and not-homeless, and were analyzed based on the amount of care they had received for mental illness. The study found that patients with schizophrenia and bi-polar disorder were more likely to be homeless than those with depression. It also found that mentally ill homeless patients are more likely to use emergency care such as inpatient service, crisis residential services, and an emergency psychiatric unit. Contrary to what had been reported before, the survey found that “persons with serious mental illness are at greater risk for homelessness than the general population.” The research also addressed addiction and availability of public services to address the problems. They reported that homeless people with severe mental disorders had a harder time obtaining entitlement benefits, which opposes the “Quality of Life” periodical I previously read. Ultimately, the research finds that the two biggest factors which lead to homelessness for the mentally ill is substance abuse and lack of access to Medicaid.

  15. “A Qualitative Study of Early Family Histories and Transitions of Homeless Youth”, is as the title suggests a qualitative study done with interviews of 40 homeless youth. The methodology used in this study was through an intensive semi structured interview. The majority of interviewees were European American and were interviewed in four Midwestern states. The study required them to be in between 19 and 20 years of age. The interviews were conducted by professionals and in a mixture of places basically wherever was most convenient and the youth felt most comfortable. The interviews lasted roughly 1.5 hours and participants were asked a series of open-ended questions that focused on maltreatment. Once the interviews were completed and transcribed from audiotape the researchers went through and used the process of focused coding. They noted each time youth were abused and what type (e.g. physical, emotional, sexual, verbal) and each time a youth transitioned (foster care, homelessness, back to parents, detention center, etc.). A few common themes were discovered. Basically it showed that a large amount of youth (33%) experienced physical abuse. The majority of youth had some form of abuse or neglect at some point throughout their lives. The other common theme was the amount of times youth transitioned. It seemed like they never had a stable place to live for an extended period of time. While this study does not follow my specific topic plan of children within homeless families and abuse affects their lives and creates a cycle. It does show how youth who are homeless have a predisposition to violence by way of that is what they know there for they often internalize it and it becomes a part of their “interaction” style. Showing how abuse can lead to cyclical homelessness, even if it initially starts in a home.

  16. “Exposure of Homeless Children to Family Violence: An Adverse Effect beyond Alternative Explanations” explored whether homeless children experience an adverse effect from exposure to family violence. The method was a quantitative study that took a sample of 109 homeless mothers with 4 -17 year old children were asked basic yes or no questions such as “have you had a history with any substance?” and “are you divorced?” to more complicated questions with the scale of “no, probably not, unsure, probably yes, yes.” Out of all the other studies I have looked at this is the most technical one. Using t-scores to correlate the data, for the most part the children had the same answers as the mothers so the reliability of the data was very high. This study relates to my topic because it shows the correlation that was assumed but now proven that children who are homeless have not only a higher exposure to violence but a harder time dealing with it.

  17. “Family Poverty, Family Homelessness and the Systems Abuse Cycle” is an older study done Australia by the Crossroads Housing Network. It is a qualitative study done in Victoria This project illustrated plight of families who are unable to gain adequate assistance from a poorly resourced welfare system. On a more specific level, it also analyzed the trend for welfare organizations to place homeless families in private hotels as a form of emergency accommodation. I felt like this was a good study because it mirrored a lot of what the US was doing at the time so essentially it was a new sample of people with the same type of system. This was a qualitative study that interviewed families on average comprised of two 30 year old adults and children under 4 years old on the conditions of their living situation. This study did not focus on necessarily violence within the family but instead on how the overall oppressive conditions lead to destructive things such as violence in the home. The conclusion was that families living inside of hotels- much like the Martinique in NY- were often times brushed aside when it came to care and services. This led to oppressive conditions which often times left the children feeling alone and neglected. Some limitations are since it was in Australia, which at the time had a high domestic abuse rate anyways; therefore a lot of violence recorded was not necessarily above the norm therefore, you can assume that homelessness was not necessarily a factor. This different approach to the same type of study gives a new perspective on children and homelessness that is really beneficial to my point of view because it gives more of a range of data.

  18. Hafemeister, Thomas L. "Criminal prosecutions target 'dumping' of homeless patients with a mental illness." Developments in Mental Health Law Jan. 2008: 68+. Academic OneFile. Web. 9 Apr. 2012.
    According to many reports, hospitals have a common practice of dumping homeless patients in need of care because they lack insurance or any ability to pay for the care they must receive. This study examines this trend in Las Angeles, which hosts one of the highest reported rates of dropped homeless patients. According to several studies cited in the article, there have been more than 50 cases of “dumped” patients reported in Los Angeles in the last 50 years, in one case involving a man who was brought to “skid row” and dumped him outside a homeless shelter, despite the fact he had been diagnosed with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Another example is made of a paraplegic man who was found crawling the streets wearing only a colostomy bag after being discharged from a nearby hospital. A deal was reached with the city of Los Angeles, demanding charges and an apology from Kaiser Permanente in LA, as well as the establishment of several new rules: (1) the development of an electronic database to link shelter providers and hospitals in Los Angeles county and to share information about shelter availability, (2) the start up of a free legal clinic in the Skid Row area, and (3) the expansion of recuperative beds in Los Angeles County. However, the problem remains far from solved.

  19. I have changed my research topic to public housing. I am investigating the benefits and drawbacks of public housing, specifically in comparison to other forms of governmental housing assistance such as that involve placing or re-locating low-income residents into mixed- or higher-income neighborhoods. My articles generally point to a sense of community as a benefit of public housing. Fear of crime, racial segregation, and poverty concentration are identified as drawbacks. I plan to synthesize by showing areas of agreement and elaborating on more details. However, there are some areas of contention. For example, one article states that because many public housing residents are not in their neighborhoods by choice, they are less likely to integrate socially. My research largely lacks the perspective of residents who have lived in both public housing and other types of subsidized housing. Areas of further research could be personal interviews with these residents. Also, because many of the arguments against public housing state that these residents have fewer opportunities, a great research topic would be a longitudinal study showing the social mobility of residents from both types of housing. Below are my three source summaries.

  20. “Community-Based Support among African American Public Housing Residents” (Keene & Geronimus, 2011) analyzes the social support structures available within public housing developments. The authors analyzed data from the 1996 and 2001 SIPP, a US Census Bureau survey of income and program participation. The sample included only survey respondents who self-identified as Black and receiving either public housing or rent assistance from the government. The authors analyzed responses to questions in the sections of the survey addressing adult and child welfare. They intended these questions to uncover the amount and type of help which was available to respondents, as well as how this support improved residents’ lives (ex: how children perform in school, whether the family had enough to eat). The study found that adults in public housing are more likely to have finished high school and to receive help from nearby family than adults who received rent assistance. For example, the odds of a family in public housing having family nearby are 1.38 times greater than the odds for a rent-assisted family living elsewhere. This leads to a significant reduction in food instability for these adults and their families. Families in public housing are more likely to have people to count on, and neighbors are more likely to watch each other’s children. These factors lead to significantly reduced school expulsion rates for children.

    This source is significant because it directly addresses the social benefits for a family living in a public housing project. It will be useful in constructing the part of my paper focused on the positive aspects of public housing.

  21. “Exploring Homeowner Opposition to Housing Developments” (Duke, 2010) investigates programs aimed at increasing the economic and social mobility of low-income residents by relocating them from low-income neighborhoods into neighborhoods which have higher incomes. This study is significant because it assesses a variety of reasons for the Not In My BackYard(NIMBY)-ism in which residents of higher income neighborhoods oppose the government moving low-income citizens in their community.

    The author surveyed the original residents of two different neighborhoods eight years after low-income residents had been relocated there. Duke analyzed the effect of several independent variables (ideals about liberty and the rights to use space, racial discrimination, class discrimination, and anticipated effects of subsidized housing) on the dependent variables of original residents’ support of mobility programs and new residents’ degree of integration. The study found that the following characteristics made a resident more likely to support mobility programs: less fear of negative consequences of arrival of low-income residents; less racial discrimination, demonstrated by belief that structural inequalities “were important to the disenfranchisement of minorities” (p. 67); a positive view of liberty, meaning the “government needed to interfere to ensure opportunities for all” (p. 67); and a belief that low-income residents have spacial rights. Most significant to my research, only 51% of residents agreed or strongly disagreed that “low income individuals were a part of the community” (p. 64). This was largely in due to a lack in belief in low income residents’ spacial rights, or the rights to come from a different background, use public spaces even if it lowers property values, and participate in the community’s planning process.

    This article provides a different perspective for my paper. My other research shows that one of the downfalls of public housing is that it plays a large role in racial segregation and concentrates poverty in one area. However, this information shows that these drawbacks may face low-income housing residents even outside of public housing projects because many higher income communities fail to welcome and integrate low-income residents.

  22. The research study in “Public Housing and Fear of Crime” (DeLone, 2008) analyzed the presence of fear in public housing, especially among the elderly. DeLone hypothesized that certain demographic factors, a history of victimization, social disorganization (generally unacceptable and frowned-upon behaviors such as loud partying or public drunkenness), and level of social integration increased levels of fear in public housing residents. Another hypothesis was that residents of mixed-age towers would experience more fear than residents in elderly-one towers.

    The research was completed by surveying residents of public housing towers in Omaha, Nebraska. Two of the towers were for solely elderly residents, while the other two towers housed both elderly and non-elderly disabled residents. Once the data was gathered, DeLone created many different regression models to come up with the best model for explaining significance. Many times, using a different model provided very different results. The most inclusive model found that high social disorganization, mixed-age towers, being female, social isolation, and unemployment were, in order, the most significant factors in increasing fear among public housing residents (p. 122).

    Even though this research study focuses specifically on the elderly, in the best models age was not significantly correlated with fear. Thus, this study provides some useful insight into the possibility that residents of public housing experience more fear than the general population. For my paper, this is useful information about a drawback of public housing. Also, the high correlation between mixed-age towers and fear makes me curious about the general relationship between population heterogeneity and fear.

  23. "The Educational Rights to Homelessness"- The rate at which the homeless population is growing each year is substantial. Of this 3.5 million people population that might experience homelessness within any given year the real concern is that 1 million plus of that population is under the age of 13. THese youth have to then most likely be taken out of their schools or moved around. Even though being homeless isn't usually a permanent issue young children still feel the effects. As Jonathan Kozol points out that there is "much that can be done to prevent homelessness from robbing children of their rights to an education" When their education is robbed so is there access to many other programs including sports and the arts. When kids become homeless they are especially susceptible to health problems. They are likely to get problems such as "asthma, ear infections, stomach problems, and speech problems" "twice as often as other children." If these kids don't have homes and regular eating habits with proper nutrition they are likely die more quickly then housed youth. This article relates to the overall problem of poor health and how that contributes to the obesity problem in the US and the death rate of youth. This will tie into my paper about sports and nutrition in youth who are homeless.

  24. In a report published in Progress in Development Studies titled Sport: A new Engine in Development which talks about how sports are becoming increasingly popular in development of groups that are often overlooked. Sports are being used to reach out to groups that might not otherwise get looked at. Some “traditional development agencies and techniques/processes have had difficult reaching” and assisting some groups of people. The United Nation has a group dedicated to Development and Peace through Sport and has an initiative to encourage development through sports. The use of sports can help raise the poverty level. It can “assist economic development and poverty reduction, tends to fall into the wider strategic thinking within development”. It can assist development. Various groups of NGOs and private sectors have been working on using sports in economic development and also for health issues such as AIDS. Sports are promising for lots of things not just helping youth become good athletes. Because the United Nations has a separate group dedicated to the use of sports in development it is obviously a growing field. This report dedicates that sports are important and viable they are to helping groups such as homeless youth.

  25. In the Sport Management Review there is an article discussing development through sports. “It reviews models where sport was employed to develop better community and citizen life outcomes and to deal with social issues previously addressed through “welfare state” processes.” Social inclusion is part of what makes the community better and helps kids get better and back on their feet. The problems that a lot of teenagers face who are homeless is because they are excluded from society. They are moved around so often in the school system that it’s hard for them to ever feel acclimated. If students can be included in society they are more likely to succeed and get back into society. Sports are able to be inclusive and help youth build up their confidence. Citizen life is also discussed in the article about how sports improve lives. In several countries it has been shown that sport and social capital help improve lives in the community.

  26. Foster, S., LeFauve, C., Kresky-Wolff, M., & Rickards, L.. (2010). Services and supports for individuals with co-occurring disorders and long-term homelessness. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 37(2), 239-51. Retrieved April 9, 2012, from ProQuest Psychology Journals. (Document ID: 2013048131).

    The author’s of this study analyzed 11 projects funded by the Federal Collaborative Initiative to Help End Chronic Homelessness (CICH). CICH works to support individuals with co-occurring disorders in as they shift from homelessness to permanent housing. This study analyzed many aspects of the needs of homeless individuals, however I was particularly interested in the treatment strategies that the authors explored. Three of the eleven projects offered trauma services for their consumers, and the authors highlighted the growing body of evidence that reveals a strong correlation between trauma and homelessness. Therefore, the authors suggested that trauma services are very necessary and effective in treating homeless individuals. Another effective strategy in aiding individuals with co-occurring disorders was the implementation of various group support scenarios, which offered a “non-threatening way to become engaged in a therapeutic process” (245). The authors also listed multiple barriers to successful treatment, including difficult client behavior, a lack of staff and resources, and the time needed for change to occur. I appreciated this article because it provided an in-depth look at both effective methods of treatments and various barriers a society encounters when trying to help this population. Overall, the study highlighted the sensitive and complicated nature of individuals who are homeless and suffering from co-occurring disorders, and it revealed the interesting fact that many of these individuals are not ready to begin traditional mainstream treatment for their disorders without first easing into the process.

  27. SUMMARY: The unique impact of out-of-home placement and the mediating effects of child maltreatment and homelessness on early school success

    This study was unique in that it specifically focused on children from birth to second grade. It looked at how children who have been homeless were affected by child maltreatment and neglect. It specifically looks at 11,000 children that have lived in homelessness during this time period. One of the interesting analyses this study does is looks at the birth risk of these children as well as their placement history, maltreatment and the periods of their life in which they have been homeless. It uses these facts to draw conclusions about homeless students and how this affects them in their future schooling experiences. The conclusion of the study was that the students as a whole were less literate than their peers and had difficulty in the sciences. The children also exhibited higher behavioural issues and had a significantly greater amount of school suspensions by the second grade. The study also found that those homeless students who did experience maltreatment or neglect on top of homelessness were much more likely to experience school behavioural issues.

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  30. Gangamma, R., Slesnick, N., Toviessi, P., & Serovich, J. (2008). Comparison of HIV Risks among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Heterosexual Homeless Youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(4), 456-464. doi: 10.1007/s10964-007-9171-9

    “Comparison of HIV Risks among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Heterosexual Homeless Youth,” is a study to look at the effects that homelessness in the Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual (GLB) youth population have on the risks associated with HIV. The study seeks to determine the risk that GLB youth will contract HIV because of risky Sexual behavior. To perform the study researchers used a youth drop-in center in the United States where they screened for candidates that would fit their study. Good candidates were youth between 14-22 who had been living in the metropolitan area for at least 3 months and were homeless. Interestingly, the study also required that participants meet the DSM-IV criteria for alcohol or other psychoactive substance use disorder. These youth were then screened using specific question sets to determine orientation, psychological condition, reasons for homelessness, sexual behavior and history with a particular focus on risk factors for HIV/AIDS. These factors included: Multiple high-risk partners, condom usage, history of STDs. The study showed that GLB students were more likely to internalize emotional symptoms leading them to pursue treatment for emotional disturbances then their straight peers. These disturbances included higher risks for depression and suicide. The study found that GLB youth were more likely to participate in survival sex and thus had a higher risk for HIV. Interestingly, this study found that females were more likely to participate in survival sex and that Lesbian youth had a higher risk of HIV then had been seen in similar studies. This study is of great benefit for my paper because it talks about the dangers that homeless GLB youth face on the streets. Survival sex is an incredibly risky behavior and is a leading factor in the contraction of HIV. The fact that GLB youth are more likely to experience both is of serious concern, something I highlight in my paper.

  31. Cochran, B. N., Stewart, A. J., Ginzler, J. A., & Cauce, A. M. (2002). Challenges Faced by Homeless Sexual Minorities: Comparison of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Homeless Adolescents With Their Heterosexual Counterparts, American Journal of Public Health, 92(5), 773-777. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.92.5.773

    “Challenges Faced by Homeless Sexual Minorities…” is a study published in 2002 that sought to take a close look at the GLBT youth living on the streets in order to compare them to their heterosexual counterparts in areas of risk and behavior. In order to perform the study researchers recruited homeless youth in the Seattle metropolitan area. These youth were then interviewed ad asked questions in order to determine their GLBT status as well as their history of risky behaviors and lifestyles in recent history. The study found that GLBT youth left home more often then their straight counterparts and that this was often due to family conflict and abuse. The study also found that for every category except for Marijuana GLBT youth wee more likely to have used the substance in the last 6 months. More concerning the difference between heterosexual youth and GLBT youth were vast when it came to Cocaine, Cocaine mixed with amphetamines, and Meth. In terms of their mental health, researchers found that GLBT youth were more likely to report depressive symptoms and they had a higher psychopathology than their peers. While almost all youths reported having sex at some point, GLBT youth tended to have more partners and they reported using a condom only half the time. Even more concerning is that almost twice as many GLBT youth reported that they neglected to use protection “all of the time.” Like other studies this again shows the horrendous situation that homeless sexual minority youth are living in. In almost all cases GLBT youth indicate a higher trend towards psychological issues, substance abuse, and risky behaviors that could lead to diseases such as HIV. All of these are categories I want to focus on in my essay and that is why I have chosen this study.

  32. Noell, J. W., & Ochs, L. M. (2001). Relationship of Sexual Orientation to Substance Use, Suicidal Ideation, Suicide Attempts, and Other Factors in a Population of Homeless Adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 29, 31-36. doi: 10.1016/S1054-139X(01)00205-1

    “Relationship of Sexual Orientation to Substance Use…” represents the results of a study performed on homeless youth living on the streets of Portland, Oregon. In performing the study the researchers were attempting to gain information on the rarely studied category of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Unsure (GLBU) youth who suffer from homelessness. The study sought to determine if there was an intrinsic link between homeless GLBU youth and their use of illegal substances, tendency towards suicide, as well as other factors. To perform the study researches set out at all hours of the day and approached youth living on the streets in order to collect a telling representation of youth from around the city. Those that agreed to participate in the study were then brought to the study center where they were asked a series of questions about sexual orientation, drug usage, psychological issues, and other relevant questions. These interviews were then repeated 3 times over the next 6 months. The study found that of the youth they sampled 59.4% of men and 40.6% of females identified as GLBU. In looking at mental health issues the study found that GLBU students had a significantly higher likelihood of having been institutionalized in the past. They also found that gay males had a higher likelihood of being diagnosed with depression and had a significantly higher ideation towards suicide ad well as suicide attempts over their heterosexual counterparts. The study also found that there was a strong link between GLBU status and the use of injection drugs. I chose this study because it highlights two important areas of my topic, substance abuse among homeless LGBT youth and mental health issues including suicide. This study was also unique in that it polled an entire population and then compared the GLBU youth to their heterosexual peers. Finally this study takes an interesting approach of including recent history in the study instead of relying on only lifetime trends, thus looking a the specific timeframe of homelessness.

  33. The article “Resilience in African American Women Formerly Involved in Street Prostitution” I thought was very powerful in illustrating the degree of desperation black woman have to succumb to when they are homeless. The research takes place in a non- faith based “transitional home” for women who are homeless trying to get back on their feet. Although there were 15 women in the house, mainly of African American decent and one being of Hispanic decent, only three of the women decided to participate in the ethnographic study. They ranged from 24-52 years of age and they all reported a history of prostitution while being homeless. The researcher did receive writing approval from both the IRB and the transitional house director. Although the length of the study varied from participant, generally the interviews lasted between 45-90 minutes. The researchers found that many all the women had encountered sexual assault, mental or physical abuse by a male perpetrator. What I found interesting was that even after the women received help they ended up relapsing over a shot period of time. One women said she went through a 90 day program as soon as she faced adversity she prostituted her self again. Overall the article found that, what helped the women that a strong support system from the nurses and counselors at the transitional home aided by spiritual guidance, help the women better transitional mentally and physical out of homelessness.

    The article “Promoting Physical and Mental Health Outcome Among Older African American Women” The purpose of this article was to examine the toll homelessness place on the mental and overall physical wellbeing of African American Women.
    The researchers recorded the narratives of homeless African Americans within five focus groups. Content analysis was used to identify the strategies in which homeless African American Women deal with homelessness. Data was collected rom homeless African American women who were at least 50 years of age. When asked about the condition of their physical health many of them said that is was either fair or poor and had health problems typical to the average American woman. However, in reality, the average homeless African American woman who is about 50 years old can display aging characteristics seen in woman who are 20 years older. What this study fails to include however is health conditions before being homeless. The study did say that the women were homeless between 1-75 months and I think it would strengthen the study if we knew more background information. For example, if a woman was in perfectly good health prior to being homeless than after only 3 moths falls is into poor health, that would strengthen the overall study.

    The article “AFRICAN-AM ERI CAN HOMELESS AND LOW-INCOME HOUSED MOTHERS: Comparison of Parenting Practices” discusses child rearing practice employed by African American and Hispanic homeless mothers. The researchers used a sample of 31 homeless and 28 housed low-income minority mothers. All the mothers had a child between the ages of 3 and 5 at the time of the experiment. 39 percent of the homeless sample resided in emergency shelters while 61 percent stayed in transitional homes. Interested mothers completed a parent interview with the Head start program and their Head start center agreed to make a home visit to observe how the children interacted with the family. After the interviews the researchers found that homeless mothers changed houses more frequently than transitionally housed mothers. The data analysis showed that homeless women has less favorable scores that housed women. Homeless women provided more language stimulations to their daughters while, also displaying overall more warmth and affection toward their daughters. This is most likely due to the vulnerability young homeless girls are subject to opposed to young homeless boys.

  34. Christensen, R.. (2009). Psychiatric Street Outreach to Homeless People: Fostering Relationship, Reconnection, and Recovery. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 20(4), 1036-40. Retrieved April 9, 2012, from ProQuest Psychology Journals. (Document ID: 1907849921).

    The author of this study focuses on his experiences working in psychiatric street outreach in Jacksonville, Florida. The author’s work is specifically centered towards homeless individuals who are unsheltered, a group that has greater difficulty accessing already limited health services. A street team of four case managers with experience in addictions and housing, a nurse, and a psychiatrist all work together to help unsheltered homeless individuals suffering from mental illness. The group operates in a very open manner, and all members are expected to have knowledge about one another’s area of expertise and they are expected to contribute to all aspects of the case. This type of treatment requires an ongoing attitude that is open to clinical adaptation and an “evolving understanding of physician-patient roles.” The author stresses the importance of establishing a relationship with the individual, opposed to setting out with the goal of diagnosing the patient and implementing a classic treatment plan. This type of psychiatric care is focused on three main, interconnected goals: relationship, reconnection, and recovery. I really enjoyed reading this article because it represented a very progressive approach to psychiatric care for homeless individuals. This type of case-by-case, personal approach seems very effective in actually making a positive difference in an individual’s life. Granted it takes a very personal commitment to the issue, the street team approach seems like a very realistic and hopeful method for caring for mentally ill homeless people.

  35. Here's Lizzie's summaries:

    Hyman, S., Aubry, T., & Klodawsky, F. (2011). Resilient educational outcomes: Participation in school by youth with histories of homelessness. Youth and Society, 43(1), 253-273.

    In the study Resilient Educational Outcomes: Participation in School by Youth with Histories of Homelessness, the authors followed 82 youth “who were initially homeless for a two year period [prior to the study], to identify predictors for participating in school” (p 253, 2011). They followed youth who originally in school and then re-interviewed them a year later to identify patterns in school attendance. The authors found that the variables that were significant predictors for staying in school were sex and rehousing. Women were far more likely to still be school at the follow-up than men. The authors came to this conclusion by following a total of 82 youth, 45 males and 37 females, over the course of October 2002 to October 2005. The youth were interviewed twice during this period. In order to qualify for this study they had to be absolutely homeless and between 16 and 19 years old. One significant finding of their research is that males “have less positive school experiences, are more likely to be disciplined, and are more frequently held back a grade or more in school” (p 266-7, 2011). They also found that homeless male youth drop out on a greater scale than females.

    This study will be useful for my literature review because it explores the drop-out rates of homeless youth which are found to be significantly higher than those of housed youth. As my review focuses on the impact that homelessness has on education, this particular study will add information about drop-out rates across the sexes. It also discusses the rehousing of homeless youth and the positive impact that it has on these children staying in school.

    Murphy, J. (2011). Homeless children and youth at risk: the educational impact of displacement. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 16(1), 38-55.
    Doi: 10.1080/10824669.2011.554143

    In the article Homeless Children and Youth at Risk: The Educational Impact of Displacement, the author collected nearly all available material that deals with the impacts of homelessness on education. The author read through all the literature, coded it and then grouped by codes. From there he found themes among homeless youths. He found that there is a “toxic relationship between mobility and educational success” (p 45, 2011). When children are highly mobile they lose a great amount of time that could be spent in school. They also have to readjust to each new school, a process which can take on average 4-6 months. When children move to many different schools, they make “less academic progress than their peers, and each time they shift, they fall farther and farther behind” (p 46, 2011). Another theme found among homeless youths is that they are absent from school far more than their housed peers. In addition to these findings, homeless children are found to perform below grade level, are more likely to be left behind a grade, have lower achievement scores, drop out a rate 4 times that of non-homeless youths (p 50, 2011), and have “deleterious long term consequences for displaced youngsters’ ability to function effectively as parents and productively as members of society” (p 51, 2011). These findings are extremely helpful for my lit review because they detail the extreme consequences that homeless children face in regards to education.