Wednesday, March 28, 2012

For Wed., Apr. 4: Posting a practice APA reference page of five sources and a summary

Before class on Wednesday, April 4, I'd like you to identify at least five (very) promising sources that you think will be useful for your literature review essay. First, I'd like you to practice putting together a References page using APA style guidelines and post this practice page as a comment to this post.

In a second comment to this post, I'd then like you write a (substantial) summary of one of these sources. In this summary, you should clearly state the main findings, conclusions, or claim of this study. Then, describe the methodology of this study or how this source substantiates its claims. Then, identify a key example that illustrates the main finding or conclusion. Last, conclude by explaining why this source is significant (or how it sheds significant light on the topic you're exploring) and how it will contribute to your literature review essay. Your summary should be 250-350 words long.


  1. Cornwall, S., & Nixon, D. (2011). Readings from the road: contextual bible study with a group of homeless and vulnerably-housed people. The Expository Times, 123(1), 12-19.

    Grettenberger, S., Bartkowski, J., & Smith, S. (2006). Evaluating the effectiveness of faith-based welfare agencies: Methodological challenges and possibilities. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work, 25(3/4), 223-240.

    Sager, R. (2001). Faith-based social services: Saving the body or the soul? Journal for the scientific study of religion, 50(1), 201-210.

    Spickard, J. (2005). Ritual, symbol, and experience: Understanding catholic worker house masses. Sociology of religion, 66(4), 337-357.

    Williams, N., & Lindsey, E. (2005). Spirituality and religion in the lives of runaway and homeless youth: Coping with adversity. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work, 24(4), 19-38.

    “Spirituality and Religion in the Lives of Runaway and Homeless Youth: Coping with Adversity” details a section of a larger qualitative study, the subject of which is resiliency. However, the focus of this section entails the impact of spirituality on runaway and homeless youth, noting specifically that while there has been focus on the causes of youth homelessness, there has been relatively little research regarding those factors that allow this transient population to survive. In this instance, spirituality is defined as a kind of “human quest for personal meaning, mutually fulfilling relationships among people, the nonhuman environment, and, for some, God.” In other words, religion tends to highlight outward expressions of one’s beliefs, whereas spirituality is usually more internal and personal. It is worth noting that the vast majority of adolescents pass through an intellectual development phase in which they begin to ponder ideas greater than themselves; an example of this would be the meaning of life. In particular, runaway and homeless youth are vulnerable because of their lack of a central authority. There are many cases in which God becomes an authoritative force in the midst of a disordered life. This vulnerable population is not diminutive; it is stated in this study that “according to the Institute for Health Policy Studies (1995), approximately 300,000 young people are homeless each year.” During the first wave of data collection in this study, four main spirituality themes were unearthed, consisting of a basic belief in divine intervention, an active relationship with a higher power (most commonly assigned the term “God”), the importance of prayer, and the idea of unconditional love. Moreover, these themes were considered by the participants to have been instrumental in guiding them through crises and ultimately aiding them in imbuing their lives with purpose. These ideas were garnered during two waves of data collection, the first of which included semi-structured interviews with twelve young adults who had either been runaways or homeless before the age of eighteen. The second wave incorporated seven young adults who were randomly found in shelter programs. The respondents from the first wave had seen success in reforming their lives; comparatively, the second wave interviewees had not seen quite as much success. Because this study is a qualitatively designed one, it attempts to understand a particular phenomenon from the individuals that have experienced such a phenomenon. Basically, because this study includes direct interviews with, and quotes from, young adults who were formerly homeless youth, it is both reliable and personal. Fifteen of the nineteen participants spoke highly of their spiritual experiences, especially in the context of helping them to transform their lives, revealing the fundamentality of religion as a kind of grounding force in the instances of those that have none. I have found that this source will be incredibly useful with my essay because it begins to shed light on the role of spirituality and religion, specifically as an authority or guide, in the lives of the homeless.

  2. Larson, A., & Meehan, D. (2011). Homeless and highly mobile students: A population-level description of the status of homeless students from three school districts. Journal of Children and Poverty, 17(2), 187-205. doi: 10.1080/10796126.2011.529114

    Grosvenor, I., & Hall, A. (2011). Back to school from a holiday in the slums!: Images, words and inequalities. Critical Social Policy, 32(11), 12-28. doi: 10.1177/0261018311425197

    Miller, P. (2011). Homeless education and social capital: An examination of school and community leaders.Teachers College Record, 113(5), 1067-1104.

    Aviles de Bradley, A. (2011). Unaccompanied homeless youth: Intersections of homelessness, school experience and educational policy. Child and Youth Services, 32(2), 144-172. doi: 10.1080/0145935X.2011.583176

    Fantuzzo, J., & Perlman, S. (2007). The unique impact of out-of-home placement and the mediating effects of child maltreatment and homelessness on early school success. Child and Youth Services, 29(2007), 941-960. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2006.11.003

    Summary of the research paper: “Homeless and highly mobile students: A population-level description of the status of homeless students from three school districts”

    This source looks at exactly the issues I am wishing to confront. From the title one can glean that the research paper will discuss how homeless and highly mobile students are affected by their lifestyle in school. The paper also aims at suggesting better ways at identifying these students earlier in their academic careers. This specific study looks at how H/HM students have diminished attendance, achievement and learning. It also analyses the effectiveness of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act which was instated in 2002 to help homeless students get the services they need.

    The study looks specifically at three of the seven school districts in Minnesota and works with the schools to categorize students into three groups, Mobile, Non-Mobile and H/HM. This classification is based off of many factors, the main one being a child mobility throughout districts. It also specifically looks at children in kindergarten, 1st grade and 7th-9th grade.

    The research effectively touches on some of the emotional and physical consequences that were observed by school liaisons and child welfare services. Some of these consequences include a doubled rate of depression, 75% need special education but don’t receive it, the most common form of maltreatment was neglect, and lastly for children living on the street by age eight 1 in 3 had developed a diagnosable mental disorder. In the H/HM group of students there were two interesting tidbits, black students were disproportionately represented in this group, and the amount of gifted and talented students was less than half of the number of students coming from the mobile group.

    Overall this study will work extremely cohesively with my topic—which is looking at the correlation between homeless students and there success, or lack there of in school.

  3. References
    Barrow, S. M., & Lawinski, T. (2009). Contexts of Mother–Child Separations in Homeless Families. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 9(1), 157-176.

    Dotson, H. M. (2011, July 26). Homeless Women, Parents, and Children: A Triangulation Approach Analyzing Factors Influencing Homelessness and Child Separation. Journal of Poverty, 241-258.

    Swick, K. J., & Williams, R. (2010, March 27). The Voices of Single Parent Mothers Who are Homeless: Implications for Early Childhood Professionals. Early Childhood Educ Journal , 49-55.

    Sznajder-Murray, B., & Slesnick, N. (2011, June 28). “Don’t Leave Me Hanging”: Homeless Mothers’ Perceptions of Service Providers. Journal of Social Service Research, 457-468. doi:10.1080/‌01488376.2011.585326

    Tischler, V. (2008, August). Resettlement and reintegration: Single mothers’ reflections after homelessness. Community, Work & Family, 11(3), 243-252.

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  5. Summary of “ The Voices of Single Parent Mothers Who are Homeless: Implications for Early Childhood Professionals” by Kevin J. Swick and Reginald Williams

    This article begins by discussing the influence of homelessness on parenting. It does this by stating the three critical roles of parents; “ (1) forming healthy emotional and social attachments with the young child, (2) developing safe and nurturing environments where young children can grow and develop in healthy ways, and (3) establishing strong parent–child relations and linkages to needed family support resources so as to empower the family.” Subsequently, the article analyzed how these three pillars are compromised when applied to a homeless family. This is due largely to the balance between stress and support being skewed and the following negativity impacting familial relationships. The factors that contribute to upsetting this balance can be demographics, family structure, socio-economic status, personal history, and personality. As the article moves into explaining the study preformed, it identifies the tree questions the study is aimed at answering. “(1) How did participating single mothers who are home- less perceive their parenting within a homeless or transitional shelter? (2)How have single mothers who are homeless changed their parenting approaches since they have entered their homeless shelter? (3)What barriers and strengths particularly impede or empower the parent–child relationship in participating families headed by single mothers who are homeless as perceived by (a) the mothers themselves and (b) the helpers in their lives?” The method in this experiment was described as a qualitative approach using participant-observation, interviews, and guided self- reports by the participating mothers. A group was compiled a group of four participants who all bore the characteristics of being single, being a mother of at least one child, and residing in a transitional living situation. Through this study, three characteristics of how parenthood changed upon becoming homeless surfaced: increasing honesty and privacy of their conversations with children, realizing the importance of meeting the children’s basic physical needs, and making greater efforts to keep their children happy even while living in a shelter. In addition, the study drew conclusions about the strengths of homeless mothers, and what resources need to be implemented in order to better this situation. The three examples given for this included: “Involve faith-based groups more effectively in sup- porting and empowering homeless families. Seek to dispel the many negative and incorrect stereotypes about homeless mothers and their children, and Interact more with homeless mothers in supportive ways such as mentoring and one-on-one counseling.” This source is significant because it relates a study that interacts directly with homeless mothers, and therefore sheds light on this experience in a unique and intricate manner.

  6. Baker, C.K., Billhardt, K.A., Warren, J., Rollins, C., Glass, N. (2010): Domestic violence,
    housing instability, and homelessness: a review of housing policies and
    program practices for meeting the needs of survivors, Aggression and Violent
    Behavior, 15, 430-439

    Baker, C.K., Cook, S. L. & Norris, F. H. (2003): Domestic violence and housing
    problems: a contextual analysis of women’s help-seeking, received informal support, and formal system response, Violence Against Women, 9: 754, 754-783.

    Bufkin, J. & Bary, J. (1998): Domestic violence, criminal justice responses and
    homelessness: finding the connection and addressing the problem, Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless, 7:4, 227-238.

    Brush, L. (2004): Battering and the poverty trap, Journal of Poverty, 8:3, 23-43.

    Zorza, J. (1991): Woman battering: a major cause of homelessness, HeinOnline,
    21:25:43, 421-429.

    Summary of “Battering and the Poverty Trap”

    “Battering and the Poverty Trap,” a research style article written by Dr. Lisa D. Brush, uses 40 different interviews of woman on welfare to compare their experiences with homelessness and the various causes of their inability to secure and keep a job in order to pay bills. Her findings are surprising and varied according to each individual. She also remarks on how different the studies done in different areas of the country are. Many of them included contradictories, especially regarding domestic violence. For example, in Maryland woman that admitted to being abused by a partner were on welfare for a shorter period of time.
    Despite the contradictories in studies that Brush talks about, she includes extensive evidence as to the effects of domestic abuse on woman on welfare and trying to overcome to cycle of poverty. She includes information on the protocol used to classify abuse and compare experiences of abuse between women. This protocol includes kinds of violence commonly used and ways in which they are used. Along with her explanation of abusive tactics, she includes several statistics regarding percentages of women that reported experiences of each form of abuse, percentages of women whose ability to work was affected by the abuse, percentages of women on welfare who are in relationships, etc. The statistics used in the article prove the legitimacy of the author and would be good evidence to use in my own paper.
    All in all, this paper will be a good starting point for my paper because it outlines the basic problems with domestic abuse and its effect on homelessness, especially homeless women.

  7. Bartholomew, T. (1998). Family Poverty, Family Homelessness and the Systems Abuse Cycle. Family
    Matters, (51), 37-40
    Howard, K. S., Cartwright, S., & Barajas, R. (2009). Examining the Impact of Parental Risk on Family
    Functioning Among Homeless and Housed Families. American Journal Of Orthopsychiatry, 79(3), 326-335
    Pardeck, J. T. (2005). An exploration of child maltreatment among homeless families: implications for
    family policy. Early Child Development & Care, 175(4), 335-342. doi:10.1080/0300443042000244019
    Thorup, J. (2000). Homeless families in St. Louis: a report from the field. Journal Of Children &
    Poverty, 6(1), 43.
    WILLIAMS, S. S., & STICKLEY, T. T. (2011). Stories from the streets: people's experiences of
    homelessness. Journal Of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, 18(5), 432-439. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2850.2010.01676.x

  8. “An exploration of child maltreatment among homeless families: implications for family policy” is a study taking the unique approach of studying the maltreatment of children in homeless families, and how that can affect the future homelessness of these children. The methodology of this study is data drawn from case studies of clients from a shelter in the Midwestern United States. The researchers used the client intake instrument employed by the homeless shelter. They got extensive data from the shelter including demographic, age, reasons for being homeless and medical histories that included abuse, such as chemical/substance abuse but also physical, sexual, and emotional abuse that required medical care. The findings as far as demographic information are pretty standard across the board. Essentially the sex of the homeless is even with 51% male, 49% female. The dominant age range is from 20-40 years of age, and the majority of the sample is white, due mainly to the area in which the sample was taken from, a predominately white area. According to the study the abuse is divided into three categories: sexual, physical, and emotional. The most common type of abuse is physical, and the majority of it takes place in childhood. The main conclusion of this article is essentially that not all children who are homeless are abused, but the majority of the children who are homeless and abused often times stay homeless. As well as a significant portion of homeless people were abused as children. Another running theme is essentially that most cited in the study as narratives abused by their father, or the dominant “father” figure in their lives. This sheds light on the topic I am exploring because I am planning on looking at how children are abused within homeless families and how this creates a cycle of homelessness and abuse. Children who are abused often face higher risk for things like substance abuse, but I wanted to see if this would have a correlation with homelessness as well. This study was very helpful because it did two things: it proved to me that homeless children facing abuse often times get stuck in a cycle of homelessness. It also disproved the assumption I had that the majority of children who are homeless are abused. I assumed that most children that are homeless would be in abusive situations, but the reality of it is, according to this study at least, that the amount of children abused in homelessness is equivalent to the proportion of housed children who are abused, and both cases have very detrimental consequences for future development.

  9. Brazley, M., & Gilderbloom, J. I. (2007). HOPE VI Housing program: Was it effective?. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 66(2), 433-442. doi: 10.1111/j.1536-7150.2007.00518.x.

    Lee, B.A., Tyler, K. A., & Wright, J.D. (2010). The new homelessness revisited. Annual Review of Sociology, 36, 501-521. doi: 10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115940

    Leventhal, T., & Newman, S. (2010). Housing and child development. Children and Youth Services Review, 32(9), 1165-1174. Retrieved from

    Marquis, G., & Ghosh, S. (2008). Housing Opportunities for People Everywhere (HOPE VI): Who gets back in?. The Social Science Journal, 45(3), 401-418. Retrieved from

    Pardee, J.W., & Gotham, K. F. (2005). Hope VI, Section 8, and the contradictions of low-income housing policy. Journal of Poverty, 9(2), 1-21. doi: 10.1300/J134v09n02_01.

  10. HOPE VI is a federal policy which provides funds to cities for the purpose of revitalizing public housing projects and creating new urban neighborhoods with mixed-income housing and businesses. The main objectives for the new neighborhoods are increased income diversity among residents and decreased isolation for low-income citizens. In their article “Housing Opportunities for People Everywhere (HOPE VI): Who gets back in?”, authors Marquis and Ghosh (2008) analyze a particular HOPE VI project to compare original residents with the post-redevelopment residents. They intend to determine whether original residents could gain admittance to housing in the new development. Ultimately, they hope to assess the effectiveness of HOPE VI.

    They surveyed both groups of residents to assess the demographics of each group, focusing especially on age level, income level, and various sources of income (wages, child support, social security, etc.). Using statistical methods, they analyzed the data for significant differences between the two groups in each of the independent variables, or demographic factors. They then created and tested several regression models to determine the strength of each demographic factor in predicting whether an original resident could be admitted into the new development.

    Marquis and Ghosh concluded that only 9.5% of former residents had become members of the new community, meaning that former residents had to attempt to relocate elsewhere. HOPE VI did create more economically diverse neighborhoods, but also reduced the amount of public housing available and worsened the shortage of affordable housing. They claim that this policy has created a “new class of very poor without any hope for being placed in a newer public housing facility… [they are] constrained from coming out of the vicious cycles of poverty” (Marquis & Ghosh, 2008).

    This article should prove to be a useful source for my paper as I analyze how HOPE VI has affected the public housing situation in the United States. I plan to use this article’s evidence to propose that this policy increased housing instability for many families across the nation. Exposing parents and children to this insecurity may even have increased present and future homelessness rates.

  11. Buckner, J. C, (2008). Understanding the Impact of Homelessness on Children Challenges and Future Research Directions. American Behavioral Scientist. vol. 51 no. 6 721-736

    David, D.H & Gelberg, L & Suchman N.E, (2012). Implications of homelessness for parenting young children: A preliminary review from a developmental attachment perspective. Infant Mental Health Journal. Vol 33, 1-9.

    Noll, E., & Watkins, R. (2004). The impact of homelessness on children's literacy experiences. The Reading Teacher 57.4. 305,308

    Gewirtz, G. H. (2012) Promoting children’s mental health in family supportive housing: A community–university partnership for formerly homeless children and families. The Journal of Primary Prevention. Vol 28, 359-374.

    Kirkman, M. & Keys, D. & Bodzak, D. & Turner, A. (2010) Are we moving again this week? Children's experiences of homelessness in Victora, Australia. Social Science & Medicine, vol 70, 994-1001.

    Summary of the article "Understanding the Impact of Homelessness on Children Challenges and Future Research Directions"

    This article focuses on reporting research that has been done about the impact that homelessness at an early age has on children. This includes discussions on homeless children's health, mental health and academic achievement. The article points out three types "risks" that homeless children face: risks only held by homeless children, risks held by low-income children all together and risks held by all children regardless of socioeconomic background. This model helps researchers identify what is being caused directly by homelessness and which traits are also caused by low income.
    The article reported that the many studies done on low-income children and homeless children have only created more ambiguity. It has been consistently found that low-income children are disadvantaged developmentally but less proof has been found to show that being homeless (rather than just low-income) adds another layer to that. The article said "what can be reasonably concluded from the scientific evidence at this stage is that homelessness (when meant as a stay in a family shelter) can have a detrimental impact on children, but not in all instances" (Buckner).
    In three out of six studies done from 1987-2004, homeless children were found to do worse academically than other children. The other three found no difference. The article goes on to present possible explanations for why these inconsistencies were found. It said that in some instances the samples chosen to represent housed and homeless children were questionable. For example, one study chose to use children in a health clinic to represent housed children, making them a group that could have their academics affected in a different way. Some sample sizes were also too small.
    Other reasons for these inconsistencies were also given, such as the difference in affordable housing prices in different regions. The article stated that why a family went homeless can be a crucial factor. When the demand for housing outweighs the supply, it is the most vulnerable families that end up on the streets. The article argues that in many cases these families have parents with mental illnesses, or drug and alcohol problems. While these problems may be what leads the family to the streets, it could be these that stunt a child's development rather than the fact that they are homeless. In addition, some shelter housing is better than others which could create an inconsistency in findings.
    This article was a good jumping off point for me because it made it clear that there is still ambiguity about whether homelessness does affect a child's development. It seems clear that there are many studies that prove this to be true, but others that are less sure. Through my research I hope to develop my own opinion on the matter.

  12. Bellotti, M. (2005). Life Skills Project. Journal Of Correctional Education, 56(2), 96-100

    Celebrity Research Lists - Famous Who Were Once Homeless. (n.d.).Angelfire: Welcome to Angelfire. Retrieved April 2, 2012

    Duffield, B. (2001). The Educational Rights of Homeless Children: Policies and Practices. Educational Studies, 32(3), 324.

    Fournier, M. E., Austin, S., Samples, C. L., Goodenow, C. S., Wylie, S. A., & Corliss, H. L. (2009). A Comparison of Weight-Related Behaviors Among High School Students Who Are Homeless and Non-Homeless. Journal Of School Health, 79(10), 466-473.

    Hudson, A. L., Nyamathi, A., Slagle, A., Greengold, B., Griffin, D., Khalilifard, F., & ... Reid, C. (2009). The Power of the Drug, Nature of Support, and Their Impact on Homeless Youth. Journal Of Addictive Diseases, 28(4), 356-365

    A Comparison of Weight-Related Behaviors Among High School Students Who Are Homeless and Non-Homeless

    Many times it is said that homeless youth are more unhealthy then their peers who have homes. This study looked at homeless teenagers and housed teenagers. “The distribution of body mass index was similar among students who were homeless and non-homeless” (Fournier). Although the distribution is relatively the same homeless youth are more likely to have greater swings in their weight gain and loss and are more likely to engage in abnormally eating behaviors such as “fasting” or using “diet pills”. The study asked what types of diets each participate was eating; whether they were being properly nourished. In conclusion the study found that in Massachusetts nearly 4% of all teenagers are classified as homeless and these homeless youth are at a greater risk for “weight-control behaviors” and also for unhealthy eating habits. The study says that having free breakfast and lunch options at all public schools is crucial in helping low income and homeless teens begin to have proper nutrition for at least part of the day.
    How does this relate to my topic regarding sports and homelessness? Teens who play sports are generally healthier than teens who do not play sports. If homeless teens are not eating properly they are less likely to be able to succeed when they are playing a sport because they won’t have the proper nutrients. Nutrition plays a vital role in teens and their health in general especially since they are growing.
    This study was a case study performed in Massachusetts and published in Journal of school health in 2009. Questionnaires were handed out to students and they were asked to answer several questions regarding their nutrition. The data was then compiled in order to have a large database of answers.

  13. Greenwood, R., Schaefer-McDaniel, N. J., Winkel, G., & Tsemberis, S. J. (2005).
    Decreasing psychiatric symptoms by increasing choice in services for adults with histories of homelessness. American Journal of Community Psychology, 36(3/4), 223-238. doi:10.1007/s10464-005-8617-z

    Karper, L., Kaufmann, M., Millspaugh, G., Vega, E., Stern, G., Stern, G., & Lynch, M. (2008). Coordination of care for homeless individuals with comorbid severe mental disorders and substance-related disorders. Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 4(2), 142-157. doi:10.1080/15504260802066950

    Leipersberger, T. (2007). An investigation of mental health care delivery from consumers' perspectives. Journal of Human Behavior in The Social Environment, 15(1), 1-21. doi:10.1300/J137v15n0101

    Merscham, C., Van Leeuwen, J. M., & McGuire, M. (2009). Mental Health and Substance Abuse Indicators Among Homeless Youth in Denver, Colorado. Child Welfare, 88(2), 93-110.

    Moore, K. A., Young, M., Barrett, B., & Ochshorn, E. (2009). A 12-month follow-up evaluation of integrated treatment for homeless individuals with co-occurring disorders. Journal of Social Service Research, 35(4), 322-335. doi:10.1080/01488370903110829

  14. Leipersberger, T. (2007). An investigation of mental health care delivery from consumers' perspectives. Journal of Human Behavior in The Social Environment, 15(1), 1-21. doi:10.1300/J137v15n0101

    The researcher in this study applied a more qualitative, personal approach to exploring the circumstances of homeless persons’ experiences and perspectives of mental health services. Specifically, the researcher interviewed 25 (15 female, 10 male) homeless individuals in a Midwest town in the United States who met the criteria of being Severely Mentally Disabled. All participants reported traumatic experiences from their past (sometimes multiple events), and 20 of the 25 reported alcohol and/or drug abuse. While the participants were not offered any sort of compensation for their contribution to the study, the researcher noted that the participants were eager to share their stories, suggesting that the researcher was successful in creating a comfortable and confidential space for the participants. One of the predominant findings that the researcher highlighted was the tendency of the participants in the study to avoid mental health services due to personal pride and/or shame. She noted that many of the interviewees reported severe stigmatization directed towards their status as homeless individuals, which made it difficult in pursuing services for their disabilities. At the organizational level, the researcher identified a pattern in the participants’ responses regarding a lack of empathy/connection with mental health professionals, and a high turnover rate of mental health professionals. This lack of reliability within the mental health clinic made it challenging for many of the participants to establish satisfying and supportive relationships with the professionals, which the researcher thus identifies as a key factor in treating homeless people with mental disorders. Furthermore, many of the participants recounted experiences in which a mental health professional seemed more worried about time constraints than actually helping the individual, suggesting that financial resources are sufficiently lacking when it comes to social welfare services. While the author acknowledges that her study is a micro-level analysis, I think it presents very important findings that can be applied to more general, macro-level issues associated with mental health and homelessness; issues like the effects of stigmatization, preparing professionals to be culturally sensitive, and understanding the complexity of mental disorders among homeless individuals.

  15. Here's Lizzie's comment:

    Aviles de Bradley, A.M. (2011). Unaccompanied homeless youth: Intersections of homelessness, school experiences, and educational policy. Child & Youth Services, 32 (2), 155-172. doi:10.1080/0145935X.2011.583176

    Hallett, R.E. (2010). Homeless: How residential instability complicates students’ lives. About Campus, 15(3), 11-16. Doi: 10.1002/abc.20023

    Hyman, S., Aubry, T., & Klodawsky, F. (2011). Resilient educational outcomes: Participation in school by youth with histories of homelessness. Youth and Society, 43(1), 253-273.

    Julianelle, P.F., & Foscarinis, M. (2003). Responding to the school mobility of children and youth experiencing homelessness: The mckinney-vento act and beyond. Journal of Negro Education, 72(1), 39.

    MacGillivray, L., Ardell, A., & Curwen, M. (2010). Supporting the literacy development of children living in homeless shelters. Reading Teacher, 63(5), 384-392.

    Murphy, J. (2011). Homeless children and youth at risk: the educational impact of displacement. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 16(1), 38-55. Doi: 10.1080/10824669.2011.554143

    In the article Supporting the Literacy Development of Children Living in Homeless Shelters, the authors explore how children who are homeless receive contact with books and other materials that deal with reading and writing. The authors, who are writing for a journal used by educators, were concerned that homeless children were not getting adequate exposure to literature, be it children’s books or the Bible. The authors observed and interviewed many different homeless women and children, homeless shelter directors, and principals and teachers of schools to get information on how children’s literacy development was impacted by being homeless. The authors found that many homeless mothers still place a high value on their children reading and writing. They told the interviewers that they wouldn’t find any examples of themselves helping their children in their literacy development, the authors found several different ways in which they did contribute, such as “passing notes across the dinner table to ensure private conversations in the large social space, studying together with flashcards at night, making Mother’s Day cards, decorating their rooms with Bible verses and books from the public library…” The mothers were still very involved in their children’s literacy development, even if they did not realize it.

    The teachers and principals interviewed said that they tried to employ different strategies to help homeless children stay on track in the classroom. They set up meetings with the families when they first started attending the school so as to be informed of their home situation and let the family know that there was no shame in being homeless. The teachers tried to make their classrooms into safe spaces, or as one teacher described them, oases, where the students could be safe and not have to worry about their home situations. Despite all these efforts, homeless students still struggle in school. One boy who was homeless recalls being an honor roll student before they were displaced from their home, and afterwards coming home with a failing report card. He said that his mother could not expect the same grades when he’d been in four schools in five months. The article ends with suggestions that educators can use to make their classrooms and schools more accessible to homeless students and how to keep these students where they should be, instead of letting them fall through the cracks. This source will contribute to my literature review essay because I am examining how homeless children’s school performance is affected, and this article gives a child’s own words on how he is affected, while also offering solutions that people are trying to implement.

  16. I chose the article, Building a responsive network of support and advocacy for older African American homeless women through developmental action research. I believe this will be my most important source during the research process. I liked it because it provides the framework for my paper. The program behind the research is called Leaving Homelessness Intervention Research Project (LHIRP). Within the whole subject of researching the life of poverty and figuring out how to combat it, the researchers venture off into different subprojects to explore the lives of African American homeless women. Therefore the methodology for researching the lives of these women can include ethnography or a group discussion with several women who through personal photography, scrapbooks, and story telling depict crucial turning points in their lives. The article states “The narratives are designed to help participants experience a catharsis, an unloading of the intense emotions they have experienced during the course of their homeless experience which, in turn, can help them to be more receptive to the next steps in the helping process.” (12) So far the LHIRP “has accumulated 82 case studies and eight in-depth ones” (12) Through these case studies the researchers how found what they call 8 pathways into homelessness. These are (a) fleeing domestic violence; (b) coping with serious health problems that limit independent living; (c) experiencing alienation from families of origin; (d) losing housing due to accidents; (e) dealing with serious substance use and mental health issues; (f ) leaving criminal activity, particularly involvement with the drug culture; (g) experiencing heightened economic vulnerability, especially as a result of cutbacks in benefits, and limited work opportunities; and (h)dealing with the consequences of marital disruption” (8). On many occasions African American Women do not experience one of these aspects but a hybrid of these pathways.

    This source is important for my own research because it illustrates how easy it is for the average African American women to slip into homelessness. One of the findings is that 30% of older white African American women are in poverty compared to only 20% of older white women. Being in poverty increasing isolation and in turn lead to poor health which is one of the eight pathways into homelessness (3). Even if African American woman is lower middle class she is still more likely to become homeless as opposed to a middle class white woman. Black women experience the highest rate of divorce which the article states as being 47%. Divorce can lead to stress on the job which can cause unemployment in some circumstances. The article as a whole does a great job of depicting the cycle of homelessness.

    Cooke, C. L. (2004). Joblessness and Homelessness as Precursors of Health Problems in Formerly Incarcerated African American Men. Journal Of Nursing Scholarship, 36(2), 155-160

    Johnson, R. (2010). African Americans and Homelessness: Moving Through History. Journal Of Black Studies, 40(4), 583-605.

    Killion, C. (2000). Extending the Extended Family for Homeless and Marginally Housed African American Women. Public Health Nursing, 17(5), 346-354. doi:10.1046/j.1525-1446.2000.00346.x

    Walls, N., & Bell, S. (2011). Correlates of Engaging in Survival Sex among Homeless Youth and Young Adults. Journal Of Sex Research, 48(5), 423-436. doi:10.1080/00224499.2010.501916

    Washington, O., Moxley, D., Garriott, L., & Crystal, J. (2009). Building a responsive network of support and advocacy for older African American homeless women through developmental action research. Contemporary Nurse: A Journal For The Australian Nursing Profession, 33(2), 140-160.

  17. Min, S., Kuno, E., & Wong, Y. (2004, December). Long-term Effectiveness of the ACCESS Program in Linking Community Mental Health Services to Homeless Persons With Serious Mental Illness. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 31(4), 441-449. Retrieved April 3, 2012, from Penrose Library Online.

    Hafemeister, T. (2008, January). Criminal prosecutions target "dumping" of homeless patients with a mental illness. Developments in Mental Health Law, 27(1), 68+. Retrieved April 3, 2012.

    Viron, Mark J., Stern, Theodore A. (2010, December) The Impact of Serious Mental Illness on Health and Healthcarere Psychosomatics, 51(6), 458-465. Retrieved April 2, 2012, from Penrose Library Online

    Mojtabai, Ramin. (2005). Perceived Reasons for Loss of Housing and Continued Homelessness Among Homeless Persons With Mental Illness. Psychiatric Services. 56(2). 172-8.

    (2005) “2005 APA Gold Award: Providing Housing First and Recovery Services for Homeless Adults with Severe Mental Illness. Psychiatric Services, 56(10). 1303-1305.

    “Percieved Reasons for Loss of Housing and Continued Homelessness Among Homeless Persons With Mental Illness” examined the reasons for homelessness among mentally ill people as an issue and compared their reasons for homelessness to those who were not mentally ill. To conduct the study, the author used the interviews and answers of just under 3,000 homeless persons who explained the reason they had become homeless. To determine whether or not a patient would be considered mentally ill, Ramin defined mental illness in broad terms by the requirements set in place for such a definition by NSHACP. The more narrow definition included these requirements as well as a past hospitalization. The results of the study found that out of those interviewed, 56% met the broad requirements for mental illness, and 22% met the narrow definition. By in large, most of their reasons for being homeless included the same reasons as the non-mentally ill. Specifically lack of funds, unemployment, and lack of suitable housing. The author concluded that these results called for a structural re-analysis of housing and care programs for the mentally ill.

  18. Baggett, T. P., O’Connell, J. J., Singer, D. E., & Rigotti, N. A. (2010). The Unmet Health Care Needs of Homeless Adults: A National Study. American Journal of Public Health, 100(7), 1326-1333. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.180109

    Hwang, S. W., Ueng, J. M., Chiu, S., Kiss, A., Tolomiczenko, G., Cowan, L., Levinson, W., & Redelmeier, D. A. (2010). Universal Health Insurance and Health Care Access for Homeless Persons. American Journal of Public Health, 100(8), 1454-1561. doi:10.2105/APJH.2009.182022

    Marks, S. M., Taylor, Z., Burrows, N., Qayad, M.G., & Miller, B. (2000). Hospitalization of Homeless Persons with Tuberculosis in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 90(3), 435-438.

    Nickasch, B., & Marnocha, S. K. (2009). Healthcare experiences of the homeless. Journal Of The American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 21(1), 39-46. doi:10.1111/j.17457599.2008.00371.x

    Pascual, J., Malagón, A., Arcega, J. M., Gines, J. M., Navinés, R., Gurrea, A., Garcia-Ribera, C., Bulbena, A. (2008). Utilization of psychiatric emergency services by homeless persons in Spain. General Hospital Psychiatry, 30(1), 14-19. doi:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2007.08.006

  19. “Universal Health Insurance and Health Care Access for Homeless Persons” is a study performed in Ontario, Canada in order to asses the impact that Universal Health Care has on the homeless population. In the introduction of this study the authors explain their reasoning in the framework of the United States. They highlight several studies that have been performed that indicate that in 1996, 57% of the homeless population in the United States was uninsured and 25% of that same population reported unmet health care needs in the previous year. They also discuss several studies performed in individual states and cities were the numbers of individuals with unmet health care needs reached as high as 57%. The actual performance of the study took place in Toronto, Canada, the nations largest city, in Canada there exists a universal and publicly funded health care system in which, “all medically necessary physical services and hospital-based care are fully covered with no copayments.” The researchers wanted to study whether or not individuals still exhibited unmet health care needs in a country with universal health care.

    In order to study this the researches sampled 58 of the 64 shelters in Canada and collected a sample of 2516 individuals that was eventually filtered down to a group of 1634 eligible members who spoke English, were classified as homeless, and had an Ontario health care number and card in their possession. This group was then given a wide range of physical and psychological tests and scales in order to determine their health as well as their medical needs. The most important result collected in this group was that a weighted average of 16% of participants indicated that they had unmet health care needs. Using this number as well as their observations the researchers determined that despite the presence of a universal health care system in Canada there were still individuals who were not able to get their needs met. While this did not fully satisfy the researchers in that they were not able to conclude that Universal healthcare had removed all barriers to health care, the difference in unmet needs between the United States and Canada indicated to the researchers that insurance was needed and that the remaining 16% of unmet needs could be related to individual fears and mistrust of the medical system by homeless individuals.

    In my paper this study would be significant because it indicates the fact that a more accessible health care system would make it easier for homeless individuals to get their needs met. When combined with other studies that I have found that indicate that health care needs and problems are significant factors in the prevalence of homelessness, I believe it will be possible to construct a studied and compelling argument for the idea that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act would help with homelessness and the problems that cause it.